Offshore wind is one of the fastest growing sectors of renewable energy (RES) in Europe, using offshore wind energy.
The first offshore wind farm was created in Denmark in the early 1990s. Currently, 12 European countries have installations (turbines) in various sea basins. The market leader is the United Kingdom, where the installed capacity has exceeded 8 GW, and existing plans provide for reaching 30 GW by 2030. The next positions are occupied by Germany, Denmark, Belgium and the Netherlands.
Commissioning of the wind farm Baltica - 3, with power the capacity up to 1045 MW, it is planned after 2026. After commissioning the Baltica-2 power plant, with a maximum capacity of 1498 MW, PGE will have up to 2.5 GW of installed capacity in the Baltic Sea at the end of 2030.
Offshore wind farms are built mainly in the north of Europe due to favourable wind conditions – the density of wind energy in Europe is the most advantageous in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea.
The Baltic Sea is an attractive location for offshore wind farms, also due to the relatively shallow waters, lower wave height and smaller tides than in the North Sea. The Baltic Sea was the first location of the offshore wind farm – Vindeby in Denmark with a capacity of 5 MW.
Source: PWEA report “The future of offshore wind energy in Poland”, May 2019, pages 8-9